According to the literal definition of Āyurveda, the most direct sources date from Paleolithic prehistory dating back at least to c. 1 900 000 AEC according to the archaeological evidence of Riwat where lived the first inhabitants known to date in the plain of Indus.
For the prehistory of the Neolithic it is likely that the first founding civilizations of Āyurveda date from c. 7000 BCE during the first Mehrgarh's aceramic (ie without the use of pottery) period (Mehergarh / Mehrgar).
Thus, on the edge of the Paleolithic, the first prehistoric traces of the Āyurveda have their sources in the pre-Harappan civilization ancestor of the civilization of the Indus Valley (named mature Harappan civilization).
This civilization is contemporary with the civilizations of low prehistoric Egypt and 4 millennia older than the Mesopotamian civilizations.
In this pre-Harappan civilization, the remains of the first traces of agriculture of semi-nomadic people have a way of life comparable to the indigenous Abdi people who still live today in modern India.
The first traces of Āyurveda as a medical science are attested in particular at the archaeological site of Mehrgarh in Baluchistan (Pakistan), in the 7th and 6th millennium BCE (Coppa et al., 2006).
The Āyurveda also most likely draws its sources from Dravidian civilizations as evidenced by the Siddha medicine probably contemporary with pre-Harappan civilizations.
Today, Āyurvedic medicine benefits in India and neighboring countries from a government-funded academic education. It is also taught in many countries of the world by organizations or institutions more or less recognized.
Nevertheless, the most ancestral and original form of Āyurveda is practically no longer taught and practiced to this day.